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从高考试题看when 的用法

发布时间:2017-10-12 10:59来源:网络

  一、 连词when的用法�

  【高考题例】
  1. (2011年浙江卷)One Friday,we were packing to leave for a weekend away_______my daughter beard cries for help.
  
  A.�after
  B.�while
  C.�since
  D.�when
  分析:D。本题考查状语从句。此处表示“就在这时,突然”。
  2. (2011年福建卷)It was April 29,2001_______Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony.
  A.�that
  B.�when
  C.�since
  D.�berore
  分析:B。本题考查连词。此处连词when引导时间状语从句。
  英语中,连词when可以用做从属连词和并列连词。它们的用法和意思是不尽相同的。
  (1) 从属连词when表示 “当……时候”。引导的时间状语从句表示与主句动作同时或不同时,从句动词用延续或非延续都可以。有时候when 后面可以直接跟过去分词或现在分词。如:
  I’ll telephone you when I get there tomorrow. 明天我到那儿的时候就给你打电话。
  When asked why he was late, the little boy was very frightened. 当问起为什么迟到时,那个男孩非常害怕。
  When working in the fields, the man found a snake. 在田里干活时,那人发现了一条蛇。
  When he worked in that company, he made a lot of friends. 在那家公司上班时,他交了很多朋友。
  注意:while 也可以引导时间状语从句,从句用延续性动词。如上句也可以说:
  While he worked in that company, he made a lot of friends.
  (2) 连词when 用做并列连词表示“就在这时,恰恰在这个时候”(=and this time/just at that time)的意思。此时,不可以用其他词代替。如:
  Tom was sitting near the fire when he heard a knock at the door. 汤姆正坐在火炉边,这时他听到一阵敲门声。
  I was just going to speak when the doorbell rang. 我正准备讲话,这时门铃响了。
  One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashed. 一天查科正在太平洋上空飞行,就在这时他的飞机突然坠毁。
  一般说来,当并列连词when表示“就在这时,正在这时”的用法时,它所引导的并列句表示动作发生后,另一个并列句所表示的动作之后,常用于以下结构。
  ①was/were doing+when 意思为 “就在这时,正在这时”。如:
  We were discussing the maths problem when the headmaster came in. 我们正在讨论数学问题,就在这时校长进来了。
  Li ping was walking in the street when he heard himself called from behind. 李平正在街上走,就在这时有人从后面叫他。
  ②be+表示状态的介词短语+when意思为 “正在做某事,就在这时……”。如:
  They were at work in the office that afternoon when a big fire broke out. 那天下午他们正在办公室工作,就在这时一场大火发生了。
  We were on duty in the classroom when a boy rushed in. 我们正在教室里值日,就在这时一名男孩冲进来了。
  Tom was on his way to school when two boys stopped him. 汤姆正往学校走,突然两个男孩拦住了他。
  ③was/were about to do… when 意思为 “正要/正准备做某事,就在这时……”。如:
  Liu Fang was about to go out when someone knocked at the door. 刘芳正准备出去,这时有人在敲门。
  They were about to set out when it began to snow. 他们正要动身,就在这时开始下雪了。
  注意:在上述三种用法的结构中,when引导的句子不能放在句首。
  二、 关系副词when 的用法�
  【高考题例】
  Between the two parts of the concert is an interval,_______the audience can buy ice�cream.(2011年江苏卷)
  A.�when
  B.�where
  C.�that
  D.�which
  分析:A。本题考查定语从句关系词的选择。此处先行词an interval表示“间断”,指时间。且关系副词when在定语从句中做状语。
  
  关系副词When的用法,当定语从句所修饰的先行词是表示时间的名词时,用关系副词when, 在定语从句中充当时间状语。也可以用介词+which 来代替when. 如:
  I still remember the day when I visited the professor. ( the day是先行词, when是关系副词,在从句中做时间状语。) 我仍然记得我拜访教授的那一天。
  His grandpa lived at a time when there was not enough to eat. 他祖父生活在吃不饱的时代。
  This is the time when we go home every day. = This is the time at which we go home every day. 这是我们每天回家的时间。
  注意:当先行词是the time, the moment, the day, the minute等时,关系副词when 可以省略,也可以用that引导。如:
  Do you still remember the day (when/that ) we got to know the computer. 你还记得我们开始认识电脑的那一天吗?(这时的定语从句省略了when/that, 实际上已经上是一个时间状语从句了。)
  All lay load on the willing horse.
  三、 连接副词when的用法�
  【高考题例】
  The last time we had great fun was_______we were visiting the Water Park. (2008年天津卷)
  A.�where
  B.�how
  C.�when
  D.�why
  分析:C。本题是when引导的表语从句。此处表示时间。
  名词性从句中,连接副词 When既起连接作用,同时又在从句中做时间状语。如:
  When he will go to America is not yet fixed. =It is not yet fixed when he will go to America. 他什么时候去美国还没有确定下来。
  此句中,when引导的是主语从句,When 在从句中充当时间状语。�
  (作者:于水兰,盐城市第一中学)

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